Ten-Fold Rogi Pareeksha Diagnosing the Person
Ayurveda rogi pareeksha or patient examining is the detailed process of identifying the social, physical and mental conditions of a person that seeks treatment. Rogi pareeksha is a detailed ten-fold process. The physician studies the person as a whole – his/her level of emotional stability, lifestyle, etc are the things to look for.
The ten fold rogi pareeksha routine as described by Charaka in his book Charaka Samhita are described below.
Prakriti - prakriti refers to the physical condition of a human being. It is the some total of the state of tridoshas and trigunas. Identifying the states in each place forms the first step in assessing the physical and mental state of a person.
Vikriti – vikriti is the vitiation from prakriti. Diseases caused due to vikriti are easier to treat than diseases caused due to prakriti itself. The state of vikriti is identified by closely examining the dhatus, malas, and the emotional control of the person.
Sara – Sara refers to the quality of sapta dhatus. The conditions of dhatus are classified as pravara (good), madhyama (medium) and avara (poor). Pravara suggests excellent immune system and condition. In Sara, the physician also checks the extent of satwa in the mind of the person. Emotional stability, clear thoughts, calmness, optimism, etc are regarded as high level sattwa, while a decreased level of this quality refers to rajas and tamas gunas of trigunas, the three qualities of mind.
Samhanana – samhanana refers to the physique of the person. A compact body frame usually suggests a healthy body. Lean or obese body are unhealthy.
Pramana – pramana or examining body proportion involves assessing the relationship between the lengths of spread arms and the height of the person. An almost same length is a healthy sign. There are also several other measurements that tell the physician about a well proportioned body.
Vyayama shakti – (or strength for exercise) is the strength of the person for physical exertion. Appropriate secretion of metabolic or endocrine products during physical is essential for good endurance in demanding situations.
Satmya – adaptability measurement. It is a process of measuring the capabilities of the person to physically or mentally adapt to changing conditions. It is a complex process, measuring the mental and physical reaction of the person to demanding conditions. His/her psychological, neurological, immunological conditions are checked. No other treatment method had similar tests.
Sattva – checking mental balance. It is the capability of the person to continue doing what is required of him without giving heed to distractions – both physical and mental.
Ahara Shakti – or the power of digestion, this test involves checking the metabolic capacity of the person. To take, digest and absorb food to the body.
Vaya – vayassu or age – Ayurvedic physician compares the actual age of the person with his or her apparent age. Sounds strange, but a person appearing younger than he or she really is, is a sign of health. There are different things to look for – skin condition, hair, lifestyle, etc.
Ten-Fold Rogi Pareeksha Diagnosing the Person
Salya Tantra or Surgery in Ayurveda
Surgery has longer history than treatment using medicines in Ayurveda. Salya Tantra or the technique of surgery is one of the eight branches of (asthanga) Ayurveda. Ayurvedic surgeons are traditionally known as Dhanwantareeyas (after Dhanwantary).
Lord Dhanwantary’s image has in his one hand a pot of Amrit (the divine nectar of immortality) and in the other a leech, suggesting surgery. Dhanwantary has once taken incarnation as a human, as the son of the king of Kashy. (Human) Dhanwantary’s great grandson, Divodasa was an expert in Salya Tantra or surgery. Sushrutha, Ouradra, Pushkalavada and Oupadhenan had their education under Divodasa.
Dhanwantary and Jeevaka did surgery for brain, while Nimi specialized in ophthalmologic surgery. Bhoja was an expert to treat wounds occurred from weapons (sword, arrow, etc) and Sushruta specialized in cosmetic plastic surgery. Westerners got the idea of plastic surgery, when a local Ayurvedic surgeon re-created the nose of a British soldier named Kovaski, which he lost in a battle with Tipu Sultan of Mysore in 1792. Now Sushrutha is regarded as the father of modern plastic surgery.
There are surgical methods for treating bodily pimples, cancer, cataract, bones and diseases that affect urinary bladder, liver, intestine, etc. Surgical methods were also practiced on ear, nose and throat. Dental surgery too was not rare.
Surgery had three main phases, poorva karma (pre-surgery), Sashtrakriya (surgery) and paschath karma (post-surgical treatment). Poorva karma involves diagnosing the disease and the part of the body that affects the health of the person and pashchath karma refers to post surgical care.
Sasthrakriya is the Sanskrit word of surgery. Sasthra means a weapon and kriya means and action. Thus sasthrakriya or surgery is an action with a weapon or tool. There are about 108 different tools used in surgery, all of them have striking similarities with the surgical instruments that allopathic surgeons use.
In Kerala (and India) dealing with blood was considered an inferior thing. The surgeon also was responsible for the health of the patient. If any serious damage happens to the patient, the surgeon had full responsibility. He even got death sentence. All these have led to the extinction of surgery in India.
By Kerala Ayurvedics.com
The change in seasons affects human body in a large scale. Climatic changes can bring in certain diseases to humans. Rithu charyas (ritucharyas) are directed to keep man protected from diseases that can occur due to change in seasons.
Though the seasons explained in ritu charyas are not exactly the same in all geographic locations, one can form his own rithucharya based on climatic conditions existing at his place.
According to Ayurveda there are six different seasons (ritu or rithus). Sisira (Sisiram – winter) January-February, vasantha (vasantham, basanta, basantha -Spring) March-April, Greeshma (greeshma, grishma, grishmam – Summer) May-June, Varsha (varsham, barsha – rainy season) July-Aug, Sarath (sarat, sarata – Autumn) September-October and Hemant (hemanta, hemantam – dew) in November – December are the six ritus. However, not all six climates are experienced in India (and Kerala in special) today. The four main climates now experienced in India are sarath, hemant, greeshma and varsha. In Kerala, one can now only identify only three main climates – a prolonged rainy season, a short summer season, and a shorter autumn season. Now a days it rains in Kerala all year round – probably a symptom of climatic changes, a disease that affects bhumi or the earth.
Ritu charya for Sarath (Autumn)
During sarath rithu, pitta dosha becomes prominent. Hot so hot food items are advisable for this season. Never sleep in daytime. Honey, small pea, green vegetables, green berries, red-rice, etc form good food items for this season.
Ritu Charya for Hemantha (dew-snowy season)
Kapha dosha is prominent this season. Enable the body to fight the cold outside this season. Energy rich food items like milk and milk products, ghee, carbohydrate rich food items like rice, wheat, whole gram, etc.
Ritu Charya for Greeshma (Summer)
This season has vata as prominent dosha. Avoid heavy physical exertion this hot season. Drink lot of water, juice, butter milk, lemon juice, etc. Take bath in cold water. Include all possible seasonal fruits in your daily diet – jack fruit, tomato, banana, water melon, cucumber, etc. Wear cotton clothes.
Ritu Charya for Varsha (rainy season)
This is the season when humans are most prone to diseases. Thippali (piper longum or Indian long pepper), honey, dried ginger, honey, ghee, etc shall be used with grains – rice, wheat etc. Eat lot of carbohydrate rich food and drink water that is cooled after boiling. Avoid day-sleep and physical exertion. Expect some kind of digestive problems during this rithu.
Sarath and vasantha ritus are pleasant seasons with hot days and cold nights. Hemant also doesn’t irritate any of the tridoshas.
It is uttarayana kala (north travelling time) during the first six months of the year. That is the sun travels over the northern hemisphere. This months are collectively called ‘adaala kalam’, which means something that sucks away energy. General body condition will be weak during this season. Avoid food items with bitter or hot tastes and include sweet tasting, sour, salty food items in your diet. Orange, banana, grapes, pineapple, jackfruit, etc are good fruit items that one can include in his diet.
July to December and up to January is dakshinayana kalam (the sun travels over the southern hemisphere). Body is better equipped during this season. One can include sweet, sour, salty food items in his/her diet.
These are all the directions by ancient Ayurveda acharyas. At first, you may feel these directions are not viable. On a closer look, you can find adjusting food and clothing according to seasons ensures smoothing mingling with nature, the natural route to better health.
By Kerala Ayurvedics.com